East Punk Memories – full documentary


“In the mid-eighties, defying local regulations that prohibited illegal filmmaking, Lucile Chaufour shot Super8 material about a group of Hungarian punks and how they were struggling under the communist regime. More than twenty years later, she returned several times to interview the same people about what it was like to be a punk in Hungary, what punk stood for back then and how it has changed since and also how they see life in Hungary before and after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Is this what they struggled for?”

East Punk Memories – a film by Lucile Chaufour
With Kelemen Balázs, Tóth Miklós, Mozsik Imre, Márton Attila, Papp Zoltán György, Ványi Tamás, Rupaszov Tamás, Horváth Attila, Erdős József, Vojtkó Dezső, Asztalos Ildikó, Törjék Tünde
Including music by QSS, ETA, CPG, Kretens, Aurora, Modells, Bandanas

Source: http://toldimozi.hu/programok/east-punk-memories

Kavarna Rock Fest in Bulgaria

Kavarna Rock Fest is an annual event which is held in Kavarna – a small city located on the coastline of the Black Sea in Bulgaria. Every summer the organizers of Kavarna Rock Fest invite different rock groups which come and make concerts. Some of the biggest and most popular bands have already participated in the rock fest. Every year thousands of Bulgarian and foreign rock fans join in Kavarna to see their favorite bands!

Visit their website for more information

Music and Interactive Media – Examples from Groningen/Eurosonic Noorderslag

One of the reasons why the meeting at Groningen proved important in terms of the overall purposes of the project is that here, the relationship between music and new/interactive media gained more emphasis than during our previous Leonardo meetings. This is in part thanks our hosts Ard Boer and Eva van Netten and New Music Labs – a very exciting, dynamic enterprise developing interactive digital solutions for a variety of music projects, located in a pleasant office on Brugstraat whose interior attests to creativity and subcultural credibility (see photos). (As an aside: walking in Groningen, I was struck by the multiplicity of small galleries, busy workshops, (sub)cultural venues and stores, indicative of the amount of creative activity in the city.)

Eurosonic Noorderslag (as is mentioned in Ann Branch’s talk) also devoted a lot of time and space to the digital shift, framing it more in terms of opportunities and creative solutions than challenges. We heard presentations about the new, and already hugely popular French on-demand music streaming service, Deezer (also available in Hungary, as opposed to, for instance, Spotify, along with 160 countries worldwide – but not yet in the US). Another exciting service that I had not heard about previously is 22tracks – which is also streaming site, but based on selected DJs curating 22 songs according to 22 different genres, in different locations, such as London, Paris, Amsterdam and Brussels. The idea is that individual curation can act as a guide amongst the vast amount of music online. Furthermore, the individual tastes of the DJs are also supposed to represent the given city, the local character, as well as a particular genre.

Ard also introduced his own app, Giglocker:

[wpvideo JXJankXe]


However, the main excitement was the Interactive Awards panel and ceremony the next day, where Ard won the Artist award with his fabulous augmented reality app for the band BLØF.

Here is Ard explaining augmented reality during the interrogation phase:

[wpvideo MDF9D3Mo]

And demonstrating how it works:

[wpvideo QTQc5XDG]

Congratulations, Ard!

The Company award was won by the equally fascinating Vyclone – a social video platform that enables members of an audience (or any people gathered within the same space) to upload their iPhone/iPad video footage, which material will then be edited together automatically and the end result published on the website. The platform is based on the idea of Joe Sumner (you can read about it here), and has already been used by such artists as Madonna, Ed Sheeran, Mumford and Sons and Alice Cooper. It appears to be a wonderful way of conjoining fans and artists within the creative process, illustrating the overall trend of consumers becoming active producers through via interactive online media. It also makes use of a vast amount of fan material that exists out there anyway, and would otherwise remain marginal. Lastly, there are great possibilities in applying the editing algorithm within a variety of fields. 

The online platform of Eurosonic Noorderslag itself provided a good example of interacivity, with the possibility of personalising the programme. Also, our wristbands containted a chip that was scanned during the evening gigs when we entered and left a venue. Based on this information, the following morning we received a personalised email notification containing the list of gigs we had attended, which was indeed really handy (the idea is thus similar to Giglocker). Moreover, you were also able to scan your wristband at panels in order to get additional materials emailed to you (slides, links), where it was available.


Impression of Eurosonic Noorderslag Event and Trip to Groningen

My fellow BCU colleague, Matt Grimes who is the Degree Leader for our Music Industries BA programme, accompanied me on the mobility to Groningen. We were there to hold a partner meeting which co-incided with one of Europe’s largest music industry event and festival Eurosonic Noorderslag. This is Matt’s impression of both the event and what we discovered from the partner meeting.

Eurosonic Nooderslag 2013.

The Eurosonic Nooderslag Music Festival takes place in the northeastern town of Groningen in The Netherlands in the second week of January. The festival is Europe’s main conference and showcase festival for European music which was set up to create an international platform for the European music industry and to promote the European repertoire. The festival is a combination of a music industry based conference during the daytime, consisting of various talks, demonstrations and chaired panels from music industry and related experts/businesses, and musical events showcasing as many as 250 musical acts from a variety of musical genres and European countries, in numerous venues around Groningen. During my time there I saw some really good music in some really varied venues from purpose built concert halls, outdoor stages to even a small independent art gallery (of which I will return to later).

My overall impression of the festival was that it was very industry focused (which sounds obvious considering the nature of the event), by that I mean it was a place for music based businesses and performers to meet and network. There were some really interesting panels discussing recent developments in the industry from such people as Will Page (Spotify) and Jeff Price (AAIM). There was a daily workshop on an education exchange programme called Musication which unfortunately we couldnt attend as it was invite only.

This workshop looked at building a network between 30 professionals in charge of educative activities in modern music where they would develop a teaching toolkit and exchange programme. This seemed focussed on the musicological and composition performance aspect of music and was probably the only panel that had a direct interface with education. Many of the other panels and presentations were quite tech-based or very music industry/business focussed, none the less there was some interesting insights into the developments within the industry regarding, streaming, ticketing, touring, festivals and streaming live, health and safety. There were also many panels that were Dutch speaking only which due to my poor knowledge of Dutch were out of my remit. What I did find out was that a lot of students from many colleges and the University in Groningen play an active part in the festival by getting placements working with professional stage managers/directors/techies on the various stages/venues, working as part of the production office team, marketing and promotions team etc etc thereby giving them real industry experience.

What I found fascinating and impressive was that a city the size of Groningen, with a population of around 190,000; could successfully accommodate the festival. It seemed apparent that there was a lot of local support from the municipal council and other public bodies in ensuring that the city retained this festival and made it integral to its economic and strategic planning. The local population were seemingly very accommodating and no doubt could appreciate what it does/might do for the local economy. Here was a really good example of commercial  enterprises and public authorities working symbiotically for mutual benefit.

In conversations with Jez Collins we both considered why a city like Birmingham, with a population 10 times that of Groningen has not managed to attract a major international music industry conference/festival like Eurosonic to take place in the city centre, rather than way out of town at the NEC. Organisations like Capsule have successfully put on similar small scale festivals such as Supersonic, which has gained a phenomenal international reputation, but I am left wondering how much Birmingham City Council (BCC) have been behind them, supporting their events to the point where it becomes part of BCC’s economic and strategic planning policy to put Birmingham on the international musical map. Only BCC can answer that but in my 8 years of working in Birmingham I have been to many meetings to discuss such issues and try to create a music policy for Birmingham and haven’t seen it happen yet. Perhaps BCC need to send a representative next year to get a flavour of Eurosonic as these types of events are really useful in supporting and indeed developing cities as sites for music, music heritage, music industries and music education.

One of the most interesting meetings I had was with the IMMHIVEproject partners where I caught up with more inside knowledge of the project and current progress as it reaches the climax of its final year. One of the attendees was Jan Peer who is the Course Director for the undergraduate International Pop Culture bachelor degree at Hanze Minerva Art Academy, located in Leeuwarden.

Jez will be posting up the video of Jans discussion with the project group up on this blog however here is my summary of what interested me about his course. The course has been running for 10 years and is focussed around the idea that popular culture is reflected in many disciplines and many pop culture artefacts /products are a combination of many art/media/cultural forms. With this in mind the course is about students developing a new skill set that combines music with art and culture. It is a 4 year Bachelor of Arts degree programme that combines 2 degrees-a Bachelor of Music and Bachelor of Design. The course has approximately 240 students (60 per year group) so compared to our Media and Communication programme (600 students) it is very small but this course has to be as I will explain later. The academy understands that most students on graduation start as or become freelancers and the academy is developing students to work both inside and outside the mainstream music industries, where music and the creative industries interface.

Interestingly there is no fixed curriculum, at the beginning of the first year students have to create a learning programme of their own based around what they want to create whilst at the academy. What they are presenting is an environment where the learning is negotiated by the students so it is self determined-a bit like post grad style teaching and learning at undergraduate level. This is where the small course numbers becomes important; the students are put into working groups based on the similarity of things they want to produce or skill sets that can be shared as benefit to all in the group-it was stressed that the group dynamic is very important and staff spend a lot of time before the start of the course that the students are well placed in a group as peer collaboration and peer teaching/learning plays a central role in the teaching and learning culture in the academy .

All students get a 20 minute lecture twice a day from different lecturers who bring to the course a specific set of skills and knowledge that they share and then the students go off in their groups to work on their projects. This sense of freedom helps in developing the students sense of personal responsibility to their own learning. Every 10 weeks there is an interview between group lecturer/mentor and each student in their group to check on student progress and to evaluate and assess the students progress, work to date and their learning goals. At this point each student has to produce a critical evaluation of their progress, learning and development and then extra tuition, resources etc are achieved through negotiation.

The development of students as creative entrepreneurs resonates with some of what we do in the Birmingham School of Media but not as advanced or flexible as the academys approach. I think having smaller numbers certainly helps manage such a course and would be difficult to replicate across our Media and Communication course at Birmingham City University where we have 600 students on the programme each taking a specialist pathway.

Jan has kindly invited me and Jez to come and spend some time at the academy and contribute some of our knowledge in an academic exchange programme. There was also the suggestion that we should take a few of our students with us to experience this method of teaching and learning as the academy also offers a student exchange programme. Visiting and experiencing the academys philosophy and environment will be beneficial as we would be able to see how it works, get to speak to some of the other staff and students and see how we can potentially combine some of their methods and philosophies into our teaching and learning practice. It was very inspiring meeting Jan and we experienced firsthand some of his students work later that day/evening at the Sign Gallery where they were performing and exhibiting at a show called Soep (Dutch for Soup) where quite believably we got served free soup whilst we walked around and looked at the art and listened to the bands. It was great seeing the fruits of the students hard work during their studies at the academy. The next day they also held a Dayparty where they had live music and this time free beer. What I liked about it was that I got to hang out with the cool kids of Groningen, heard some great music and saw some really interesting art.

Despite Eurosonic being a festival by the industry for the industry it was still a very informative and enjoyable experience and I look forward to returning to Groningen to meet Jan Peer, Ard Boer and the whole bunch of lovely new friends I made whilst out there.


Made in Birmingham Online

I’m very pleased to announce that the ‘Made in Birmingham’ is now online and can be seen in full.

This film was made in 2010 under the auspices of the Birmingham Popular Music Archive (curated by Jez Collins) and produced by Roger Shannon and directed by Deborah Aston.

Made in Birmingham: Reggae Punk Bhangra tells the story and development of these three genres in Birmingham from the mid 70s to the mid 90s through the use of rare archive footage and interviews from those who were actually there.

Footage from bands like the Killjoys (pre Dexys), UB40, Steel Pulse, Musical Youth, Beshara, Swami, Apna Sangeeta, Au Pairs, Prefects, Fuzzbox and The Nightingales and others are interspersed with interviews with UB40’s Brian Travers, Paul Foad and Pete Hammond from the Au Pairs, Musical Youth’s Dennis Seaton, Steel Pulse’s Amlak Tafari and many others who highlight the social and political issues of the day and how the music of that time reflected the diverse communities of Birmingham.

This is a great insight into Birmingham and some of its rich musical heritage.

International Festival Black Sea Cultural Heritage: Common borders, common solutions


The city of Dobrich was host to the International festival Black Sea Cultural Heritage: Common borders, common solutions, which happened in the period September 26, 2012 – September 30, 2012. Within the evening concerts the guests were able to enjoy musical performances from several Black Sea countries – Bulgaria, Georgia, Armenia, Romania and Turkey. Among the most interesting performances were a representation of a traditional Turkish wedding, a modern ballet from Georgia and of course the folklore dances and songs from all of the five countries.

The first night of the festival was dedicated to an international mix of performances, among which there was a Romanian youngster, dancing to the sounds of Michael Jackson, a professional musical band from Georgia and young rock stars from Bulgaria.

The second evening was totally dedicated to the hip hop. Local kids made a fantastic show, which included ballet, break dance and modern singing.

The third night was the most diverse – it included folklore songs and dances from the five countries, modern songs, and even a gypsy band which performed both dancing and singing.

The festival was met with great interest from the local crowd and the guests of the city. Both the audience and the performers expressed that they were highly delighted with the show.

Budapest Bike & Roll

On 22 September 2012 I participated in an event called Bike And Roll – Rock and Buda – a popular music-themed sightseeing bicycle tour organised on International Car Free Day, and at the same time as the ninth Bike And Roll event since Majdnem Híres Rocksuli (Almost Famous Rock School) began the series in 2009. The tour, led by György Réz and Balázs Bihari, has a different theme every time and covers different locations, with different speakers introducing the locations (musicians, music industry people, rock journalists etc.).

The good news for those of you who are visiting Budapest in October is that we are having another tour organised for Saturday 6 October specially for you (commencing around noon I think). Hopefully the weather will be as kind to us as yesterday!

The event series is one of the most systematic and innovative initiatives linking up the spreading of knowledge on local popular music heritage with, on the one hand, city tourism, and, on the other hand, with music education, through the organising music management school.

About the school itself: Majdnem Híres (http://www.myspace.com/majdnemhiresrocksuli, http://www.facebook.com/majdnem.hires) is the first institution to provide accredited popular music management training in Hungary. The staff primarily consists of well-known music journalists, as well as various guest lecturers representing the music industries. The school normally offers one course per semester, for a fee. Again, those of you attending the Budapest event will be able to attend a talk by a member of staff about the activity of the school, scheduled for 5th October 3pm at the conference venue.

For the Rock and Buda tour, we set off at noon from in front of the café and bar Szóda in Pest city centre – for those participants in need of a bicycle, a nearby bike rental shop offered one (the price of this was included in the ticket).

Having crossed the Széchenyi Chain Bridge, our first stop was at the Budavári Művelődési Ház culture centre. The culture centre itself, founded in 1966 in an already existing building, is interesting in its own regard as an important venue for rock gigs – besides folk dance nights – during the communist years. It is in fact regarded as one of the birthplaces for Hungarian rock music – for some people on the tour, it was more familiar for having featured in a film about rock music in Hungary. Here that we saw a retrospective photography exhibition commemorating 40 years of the Tabán music festival – a late spring open-air music festival on the side of neighbouring Gellért Hill (http://www.bem6.hu/programjaink/vizualis-mveszetek/498-40-eves-a-taban-fesztival-kamara-kiallitas-1972-2012). The first of these events was held in 1968, and then annually until 1987. During these years the festival was an important event for rock and blues bands – all major rock artists performed here – the so-called ’great generation’ of Hungarian rock –, as the photographs testified. We were introduced to the festival by Béla Szilárd Jávorszky, a well-known Hungarian rock author and journalist. Stories and anecdotes were in abundance, not only from the organisers and Jávorszky, but also the participants old enough to remember those years (there was a lot of mention of trees growing, resulting in the outdoors location looking smaller now, and also of punters climbing trees to see bands better). The festival was restarted in 1997 and is still going – however, interestingly, it still features (some of) the same acts, so it has effectively turned into a living nostalgia event. As we learnt, there have been attempts to include newer bands, but even our best-established alternative band, Kispál és a Borz, itself going back 25 years (and now retired), failed to go down particularly well. Later on we went to see the location – the current as well as the old location, the latter of which has now become to small – partly because the crowds have grown, partly because the trees have likewise.

The next place we went to see was the spectacular Buda Youth Park – a World Heritage listed protected site on the hillside, looking down onto the river with a wonderful panorama view – that has been closed to the public since 1984, but is currently about to be refurbished, extended and reopened in March 2014. The park – known as the Castle Bazaar – was built between 1875 and 1895 based on the plans of acclaimed Hungarian architect Miklós Ybl, and it originally housed various arts and industry workshops and shops, including sculptors’ workshops. The current plans to restore the place include housing similar shops and workshops, as well as restoring the upper part as a park, and adding a conference centre and two museums, one of which would also house a rock collection (you can take a look at the plans here: http://urbanista.blog.hu/2012/08/31/na_melyik_fouri_kastely_kertjeben_jarunk_egyikben_sem_ezek_a_varbazar_vegleges_latvanytervei_egy_tel?utm_source=ketrec&utm_medium=link&utm_content=2012_08_31&utm_campaign=index). The reason why we visited this place is that it functioned as the popular music venue in Budapest from the sixties onwards – the so-called Youth Park was opened here in August 1961 by the Communist Youth Association (the only group with the authority to open a venue like this at the time) (see television footage from its opening here: [youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RL7l3ZjY0tI?wmode=transparent]). During its first years, it mainly featured light music to dance to. Clothing was regulated: boys were to wear a suit and a tie and girls were not allowed to wear mini skirts. Later they introduced thematic nights for rock, dance, and pop. Amazingly, the venue held 10,000 people – unimaginable with today’s health and safety standards (even if, as somebody pointed out, the audience was generally better-behaved than today’s rock crowds). However, unfortunately there was a decisive event that reinforced the importance of safety concerns: in 1980, at a rock concert (featuring the band Edda) the crowd was so large that a part of the railing gave way and fell down the hillside – it was very lucky that the stones avoided the queuing up crowd. The event was immediately cancelled and the place closed down for a year, then reopened in 1981 with the side-entrance now in use – but only for another three years.

We looked at some old photographs (Jávorszky’s book on Hungarian rock history came in handy) and walked around the area. Jávorszky told us about the five main eras in the history of the place: the first years were characterised by light dance/singers/jazz, until about 1965; the second era featured the underground acts of the late sixties – even bands without a record were allowed to perform here; the third era, the beginning of the seventies, was a more lukewarm period, with hit-oriented pop music taking over; the period from 1976-77 until 1980 was a second golden age, with heavy rock dominating; and lastly, the fifth period, is again less remarkable – elsewhere in the city new wave was taking over, but it found different venues.

The venue also had a studio where each and every show was recorded – but only for security/monitoring purposes (for authorities to listen to what the artists said in between numbers, rather then what went on during songs) – and not for the music! Most of these recordings are now unfortunately lost. (However, our national radio still has many live show recordings, in particular from the late seventies, because prior to that many tapes had been recorded over, due to a shortage.)

It was evident from the conversations that the place can also act as a symbolic repository for collective memories from the teenage years of people living in Budapest. For example, we were joined here by a rock fan who told us how she used to regularly attend gigs here, and who is currently maintaining a Facebook page for those who used to come to the venue, as a space for them to share memories – a sort of small-scale community archive project (http://www.facebook.com/pages/Budai-Ifj%C3%BAs%C3%A1gi-Park-Ifipark/109831951184).

We then cycled further down the riverside to get to the A38 boat (http://www.a38.hu/en/), the venue voted as ’World’s Greatest Bar’ in the 2012 Lonely Planet poll. We were greeted by Sándor Kozlov, one of the programme organisers, who introduced us to all of the boat’s (several) rooms and spaces, including the stage areas, the restaurant, the ’Motor Bar,’ as well as the new extension – nicknamed the ’Box’ – that also functions as a space for acoustic events, exhibitions, film screenings, lectures, receptions etc., and houses the new office area. We were able to gain a lot of insight into the – successful – management of such an important and exciting popular music venue – but this location will most probably also feature in the tour on 6th October, so I do not want to give everything away.

Majdnem Híres made a video recording of their tour, an edited version of which will be uploaded to their website – thereby creating a source that will be available to their students, as well as anyone interested in the city’s pop history.


The Ramones Museum: Berlin

As I posted yesterday, I was in Berlin last week for the Berlin Music Week. I took advantage of my time in the city to visit the Ramones Museum, somewhere I had long wanted to go. I wasn’t disappointed. Simply, for me, it is the best museum of popular music I have been to. I think this is because it is one person’s vision and one person’s passion. Flo Hayler is that person. A music journalist and avid Ramones fan, Flo came into the museum especially so I could talk to him, here is the interview:

VID00001 2 from Jez Collins on Vimeo.

What I loved about the museum was the quality of the material Flo has collected for the last 25 years or so but also the way the museum has been set it out. It is visually stimulating and freshingly free of any interactive elements, which means you take your time looking at the material on display. Everything is hand built by Flo and his friends. Also it is not overwhelming. I spent about three hours here, because it felt like I was in someone’s house and therefore relaxed. After, I had a coffee and a sandwich and read the dedications wall signed by all the musicians who had visited and played there. And that was the other great thing for me, the space wasn’t ‘just’ a museum but a venue, cafe and hang out space. I loved it, you should go!


Berlin Music Week

As part of a pan European project that BCU are involved with called Cross Innovation, I was invited back to Berlin to speak at a conference about Cross Innovation that took place during the Berlin Music Week about cross innovation in my Birmingham Music Archive. I spoke about how cross innovation has always been a part of the music industries and spoke of three projects, this Leonardo project, Destination Birmingham: Birmingham A Music City and the Birmingham Music Archive, where cross innovation practice is central to the projects, or as is the case with the BMA, it is being developed. For example, I’m working with architects in rebuilding lost music venues in order to recreate them online and further still, working with sound engineers to realise the sounds of those venues. So cross innovation in the broadest sense and how it links seemingly disparate disciplines and practices to create new ways of understanding and presenting music heritage.

Being in Berlin again also enabled me to get a better understanding of the interplay taking place in the city with vocational training, independant music organisations and the wider music industry. Berlin Music Week consisted of a number of workshops, discussions and panels ranging from a heavy hitting panel of expereinced music industry workers talking about copyright and the future of music, to our own Andrea Goetzke from New Thinking and All 2gether Now who organised a series of talks and events with the Noisy Musicworld Acadmey in their buildings. This was similar to a fringe event for the Berlin Music Week and it was really well attended when I was there. Andrea is going to post more about this and about Noisy Musicworld Academy and their vocational training and how this links with the wider Berlin/German music industry soon.

And of course I got to see some great music, particulary in the club West Germany which is in an old car park!

I also had the pleasure of meeting up with Elena and Miroslava from the Foundation of Modern Education and Science, our Bulgarian partners and Emilia from MOKK, our Hungarian partner where we agreed a course of action for the second year of the project.


Mapping Cultures

Pleased to announce the publication of this book which contains a chapter that I wrote with Jez Collins of the Birmingham Music Archive.


Place, Practice Performance

Edited by Les Roberts, University of Liverpool

 ‘This collection gives a widely spread voice to the widening acknowledgement of what maps mean and do; how and where they occur. Comprising a series of related but distinctive, lively, well worked and critically engaging chapters, the book will find readers across a range of disciplines and subjects.’ David Crouch, University of Derby, UK
1. Mapping Cultures – a Spatial Anthropology, Les Roberts
2. Critical Literary Cartography: Text, Maps and a Coleridge Notebook, David Cooper
3. Mapping Rohmer: Cinematic Cartography in Post-war Paris, Richard Misek
4. Cinematic Cartography: Projecting Place Through Film, Les Roberts
5. Walking, Witnessing, Mapping: An Interview with Iain Sinclair, David Cooper and Les Roberts
6. Maps, Memories and Manchester: the Cartographic Imagination of the Hidden Networks of the Hydraulic City, Martin Dodge and Chris Perkins
7. Urban Musicscapes: Mapping Music-making in Liverpool, Sara Cohen
8. Mapping the Soundscapes of Popular Music Heritage, Paul Long and Jez Collins
9. Walking Through Time: Use of Locative Media to Explore Historical Maps, Chris Speed
10. Salford 7/ District Six. The Use of Participatory Mapping and Material Artefacts in Cultural Memory Projects, Lawrence Cassidy
11. ‘Spatial Stories’: Maps and the Marketing of the Urban Experience, Gary Warnaby
12. Mapping My Way: Map-making and Analysis in Participant Observation, Hazel Andrews
13. Mental Maps and Spatial Perceptions: The Fragmentation of Israel-Palestine, Efrat Ben Ze’ev
14. Peripatetic Box and Personal Mapping: From Studio to Classroom to City, Simonetta Moro
15. The Anthropology of Cartography, Denis Wood

Les Roberts is a Research Associate at the University of Liverpool. He is author of Film, Mobility and Urban Space (2012) and co-editor ofLiminal Landscapes (2012).